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Weather and Climate – मौसम और जलवायु

weather and climate
Weather and Climate to understand the weather and climate of a place, we must learn about the basic elements. such as insolation, temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, winds and the sky conditions. These are known as the elements of weather and climate.

Weather is defined as the condition of the atmosphere at a definite place at a fixed time. Thus weather is the hour to hour or day to day condition of the atmosphere with respect to its basic elements. The elements of weather constantly change, The weather of a place can change any time and hence it cannot be generalised

Climate is defined as the average weather condition over a long period of time. When we speak about climate conditions of a certain region, we mean the average atmospheric conditions of that region over a considerable length of time. This involves keen observations and accurate recording and processing of the elements of climate, such as temperature, rainfall, air pressure, clouds, etc.


The Sun continuously radiating heat and light energy in all directions. This is known as solar radiation. The earth receives its head from the solar radiation. You will be surprised to learn that the earth receivers only one unit of energy out of 2 billion units of the Sun’s energy.
The temperature of the air is not fixed, rather it changes not only from place to place, but also between day and night or from season to season. We know that day is warmer than night and summers are hotter than winters.

Measuring of Temperature

The temperature of the air can br measured with the help of thermometer.
There are two types of scale to measure the temperature.
  1. Centigrade scale
  2. Fahrenheit scale
The unit of measuring temperature in our country is degree Celsius.
In Celsius (Centigrade) scale, the freezing point of water is 0oc and the boiling point of water is 100o.

In Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point of water is 30o and the boiling point of water is 212o.


Air is Mixture of gases, and like other substance air has weight. The air exerts its weight as pressure on the Earth surface. Weight of air a unit area of the Earth is called Atmospheric pressure or air pressure.

  • Height wind= Low Pressure
  • Low wind= Height Pressure
The air is also exerting pressure on our body, but we do not experience it. The air presses us from all directions and our body exerts a counter pressure to neutralise its effect.
The atmospheric pressure can be measured with the help of an instrument, called a barometer

Distribution of Atmospheric Pressure

All part of Earth do not receive the same amount of insolation. Thus, the distribution of atmospheric pressure is not uniform on the Earth. There is no fixed pattern of distribution of atmospheric pressure on the Earth. There is a pattern of high pressure belt and low pressure belts over the Earth. ispheres.
Climate Division
You notice in the above figure that there are seven distinct pressure belts. These are :
  • The Equatorial Low-1
  • The Sub-tropical Highs-2
  • The Sub-polar Lows-2 and
  • The Polar Highs-2.
Except the Equatorial low, other pressure belts have matching pairs in the Northern and the Southern Hem


Solar System Facts

Water Transport

Indian Army Command

Bharat Ratna Winner

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